Gynecological vaginal examination
Women are recommended to visit a gynecologist regularly. During this examination, the external genitalia, uterus, and ovaries are examined. If changes are found, further tests are carried out.
If ovarian cancer is suspected, the CA 125 protein blood test is performed. High level of this biomarker may indicate ovarian cancer. However, the amount of CA 125 can also increase in other conditions, so further tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Aspiration of peritoneal fluid
If fluid accumulated in the abdominal cavity – ascites – is detected, a sample of this fluid is taken and examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells.
During this examination, the ovaries and abdominal organs are examined with a special device – a laparoscope. A laparoscope can also take pieces of tissue for microscopic examination.
The abdominal wall is surgically opened and a sample is taken for biopsy. When ovarian cancer is diagnosed, a radical operation is performed during a laparotomy – all malignant tissues and metastases are removed as much as possible.